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The development of Ngā Tikanga Paihere relied heavily on the use of external key sources. We provide these key sources to help others curious about this kaupapa to explore.

Key sources

Duncan, S. & Rewi, P. (2018). Tikanga: how not to get told off in Reilly, M., Duncan, S., Leoni, G., Paterson, L., Carter, L., Ratima, M. and Rewi, P. (Eds), Te Kōparapara: An introduction to the Māori World. Auckland University Press.

Henry, E. & Crothers, C. (2019). Exploring Papakāinga: A Kaupapa Māori quantitative methodology. Report for Kāinga Tahi, Kāinga Rua, National Science Challenges Building Better Homes, Towns and Cities. Retrieved from

Hudson, M., Milne, M., Reynolds, P., et al (2010). Te Ara Tika: Guidelines for Māori Research Ethics – a framework for researchers and ethics committee members. Health Research Council on behalf of the Pūtaiora Writing Group.

Human Rights Commission (2018). Privacy, Data and Technology: Human Rights Challenges in the Digital Age. A paper issued by the New Zealand Human Rights Commission.

Mead, H.M. (2016). Tikanga Māori: Living by Māori values (Revised edition). Huia Publishers and Te Wānanga o Awanuiārangi.

Ministry of Social Development. (n.d.). Privacy, Human Rights and Ethics Framework (PHRaE). Retrieved from

Moorfield, J.C. (2011). Te Aka: Māori-English, English-Māori Dictionary,

Open Data Institute (2019). Data Ethics Canvas. Retrieved from

Raureti, T., Jackson, A., Phillips, C., Poa, D. & Button, C. (2019). He taonga tuku iho: Māori data sovereignty in Water Safety New Zealand. Dunedin: University of Otago.

Research Data Alliance International Indigenous Data Sovereignty Interest Group. (September 2019). CARE Principles for Indigenous Data Governance. Retrieved from

Royal, T.A.C. (2007). Kaitiakitanga – guardianship and conservation - Kaitiaki – guardians, in Ministry for Culture and Heritage, Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand,

Simmonds, S., (2015). A Framework for Māori Review of Research in District Health Boards: A joint research project between Auckland and Waitematā District Health Board and Capital and Coast District Health Board. Retrieved from

Smith, L.T. (2015). Kaupapa Māori Research- Some Kaupapa Māori principles,āori%20Research.pdf?sequence=21

Social Investment Agency (2018). From listening to learning: The steps we took to analyse and sum up what we heard from the ‘Your voice, your data, your say’ engagement on investing for social wellbeing and the protection and use of data’.

Social Investment Agency. (2018). What you told us – findings of the ‘Your voice, your data, your say’ engagement on social wellbeing. Retrieved from

Stats NZ (2014). Guide to using He Arotahi Tatauranga. Stats NZ: Wellington.

Stats NZ (2018). A draft data stewardship framework for NZ. Retrieved from

Te Arawhiti: Office for Māori Crown Relations (2018). Crown engagement with Māori. Retrieved from

Te Mana Raraunga Māori Data Sovereignty Network (2016). Māori Data Audit Tool. Retrieved from

Te Taura Whiri i te Reo Māori/Māori Language Commission. (2009). He Pātaka Kupu: te kai a te rangatira.

Te Uepū Hapai I te Ora/Safe and Effective Justic Advisory Group (2019). Turuki! Turuki! Move Together! Paneke! Paneke! First principles, first steps: Transforming our criminal justice system. Second report of Te Uepū Hapai I te Ora/Safe and Effective Justice Advisory Group. Wellington.

Waitangi Tribunal (2019). Hauora: Pre-publication Report on Stage One of the Health Services and Outcomes Kaupapa Inquiry (Wai 2575). Waitangi Tribunal: Wellington.

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Content last reviewed 23 November 2020.

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